ProForma (Proteoform and Peptidoform Notation)

Protein and peptide sequences are usually represented using a string of amino acids using a well-known one letter code endorsed by the IUPAC. However, there is still no clear consensus about how to represent ‘proteoforms’ and ‘peptidoforms’, meaning all possible variations of a protein/peptide sequence, including protein modifications, both artefactual and post-translational modifications (PTMs). There are indeed multiple ways of encoding mass modifications and extended discussion has taken place to achieve a consensus. A standard notation for proteoforms and peptidoforms is then required for the community, so that it can be embedded in many relevant PSI (and potentially other) file formats.

The PSI has developed a format called PEFF (PSI Extended FASTA Format, that can be used to represent proteoforms. Additionally, the Consortium for Top Down Proteomics (CTDP) developed a notation format called ProForma (, aiming to represent proteoforms.    

This format specification represents the consortium reached by both groups in order to standardise the representation of proteoforms/peptidoforms supporting the main proteomics approaches, including both bottom-up (focused on peptides/peptidoforms) and top down (focused on proteins/proteoforms) approaches.

More information is available at:

The current version of the specification document (both in PDF and Word format) is available at: